Urban Parishes: Tulcan (Cantonal Head and Provincial Capital) and Gonzalez Suarez.
Rural Parishes: Carmel, Julio Andrade, Maldonado, Chical Pioter Santa Martha de Cuba, Tufiño, Urbina, Tobar Donoso.
SAN PEDRO DE CANTON HUACA
Urban Parishes: Huaca (Cantonal Head).
Rural Parishes: Mariscal Sucre. Montúfar Canton
Urban Parishes: St. Gabriel (Cantonal Head), San Jose Gonzales Suarez.
Rural Parishes: Columbus, Fernandez Salva
Urban Parishes: Bolivar (Cantonal Head).
Rural Parishes: Garcia Moreno, Los Andes, Monteo
Urban Parishes: Mira (Cantonal Head).
Rural Parishes: Jijón and Caamano, Juan Montalvo, La Concepcion.
Limits: To the north, the Carchi and San Juan rivers serve border with Colombia, the south with the province of Imbabura, on the east by the province of Sucumbios, and west by the Esmeraldas. Relief is shown as highlands or plateaus and a great depression with two basins, forming a broad valley in the southeast of the province and which continues for Colombian soil. The highest point in the province is in the Chiles Volcano (4,747 m). The highlands are cut by rivers: Río San Juan (north) and Mira River (south); in the east, the massif culminating in the Bare Hill (4149 m), stands on the valley of the Chota River. The basins of the Chota River in the south, with its tributaries the Angel and Apaqui and Bobo River in the north, close to the east by a mountain range whose highest peak is the Mirador (4086 m) mountain. This depression appears to be the main area of urban settlement and channel communications. There capital, Tulcan, and other smaller towns such as San Gabriel, Angel or Ciudad Colón sits, and by it runs the Panamerican Highway.
The carchense economy is based in commerce; due to its location on the border with Colombia, this province is the third generating income for imports and exports to the country after Guayas and Pichincha. Dairies occupy another important place in the economy, because not only distribute their products to local but regional level. Agriculture became the background, because excess potato production generates large losses in tuber producers; but other products such as peas, corn, beans, carrots, etc. that help the economy of small and medium farmers.
A considerable percentage of the population is engaged in formal and informal trade, while a small part of the economy revolves around services.
Heavy transport is a predominant activity in Carchi. The fleet increased from 450 to 800 units in four years.
In Tulcan were opened in mid-2007, more than 600 local markets for all, according to SRI. 2000 partners are members of the Chamber of Commerce Tulcan.
Agriculture is limited to upland corn, oats, barley, and wheat. In the lower, warm and sheltered areas, coffee, sugarcane and a variety of fruit is grown. Agriculture is accompanied with a vaccine and sheep ranching. On this basis there are some textiles and food processing industries. Carchi is a rich archaeological site, which is a very peculiar type of burial sites under the floor of the cabins.
Within this province wooden crafts are made, to be more specific in the canton of San Gabriel. In pastoral areas cantons of San Gabriel and the Angel stand. A place that is visited is for tourism Cemetery Tulcan as detailed figures designed cypress, which can also be seen in the cemetery of "poor people" in Ibarra.
Ambuqui, Angochaua, Carolina Ibarra, La Esperanza, Lita, Salinas, San Antonio.
Selva Alegre, Ilumán, Pataqui, San Rafael, Otavalo, Eugenio Espejo, Gonzales Suarez, Miguel Egas Cabezas, Peguche, San Pablo, Quichinche.
Hatuntaqui, San Roque, Natabuela.
Urban Parish: Urcuquí
Rural parishes: Cahuasquí, San Blas, Tumbabiro, Pablo Arenas, La Merced de Buenos Aires
Urban Parishes: San Francisco and El Sagrario
Rural parishes: Imantag and Quiroga
This sector concentrates the 39% of the economically active population of the province. The area devoted to crops reaches about 20 thousand hectares. And that for pasture exceeds 10 thousand. Imbabura is one of the major provinces in the production of dry beans (about 7,000 hectares were cultivated) and first in the production of corn with a soft dry cultivated area has about 35,000. It is also the first production of soft corn, and corn is the third in the mountains in the production of sugarcane over 100 thousand metric tons. Other important crops in the province are wheat, barley and corn dry hard. In fruit trees, are important avocado and tomato crops in valleys such as "tomate riñon" in Ibarra, and Ambuquí Pimampiro. It is very high sisal production centered Otavalo market.
The province has very suitable places for livestock. Herds are important Zuleta and Magdalena. The cattle population exceeds 115 thousand head. Construction of irrigation canal that opened in the Salinas Valley was very useful for agriculture, alfalfa and cattle.
Compared with other provinces, the industrial development of Imbabura is low. However, the number of people employed in manufacturing is higher than in other provinces. The main manufacturing industries are: textiles, clothing apparel, leather goods, industrial production of food and beverages.
Alóag, Aloasí, Chaupi, Cutuglagua, Tambillo Uyumbicho, Manuel Cornejo Astorga - Tandapi.
PEDRO VICENTE MALDONADO
Tabacundo, La Esperanza, Maichingui, Tocachi, Tupigachi.
Metropolitan District of Quito
Alangasí, Amaguaña, Atahualpa, Calacalí Calderon, Chabezpamba, Czech, Kumbaya, Gualea, Gualea Cross Guangopolo Guayllabamba, Merced, Chico Llano, Lloa, Nanegal Nanegalito, Nayon, Nono, Covenant, Perucho, Pifo, Pintag, Pomasqui , Puellaro, Puembo, Quinche, San Antonio,
San Jose Mine, Tababela, Tumbaco Yaruqui, Zambiza.
Santa Maria del Toachi, The Effort, Valle Hermoso, San Jacinto Búa, Puerto Limon, Light of America Allurquín.
SAN MIGUEL DE LOS BANCOS
AGRICULTURE AND LIVESTOCK
Pichincha shares the characteristics of the three regions: coastal, highlands and Amazon although the first and last in minor proportions. This explains the diversity of its agriculture.
The valleys and Cayambe Machachi have been employed for the formation of large herds of cattle, of which have become important centers of milk supply. His cattle population exceeds half a million head and is in second place after Manabi.
Pichincha Province highlighted in production: Banana (ranked second in the production of the highland provinces after Canar) coffee (ranked first among the mountain) barley (second only Chimborazo) soft corn corn (first place) potato (third after Carchi and Chimborazo, but instead is the highest production in the country).
The weak domestic wheat production, Pichincha ranks first. African palm production is concentrated especially in the area of Santo Domingo de los Colorados. Ecological conditions in the valleys of Guayllabamba and Puellaro located in the inter-tropical and sub-floor with a greater than 20 degrees C temperature have made possible a good production of fine temperate climate fruits like cherimoya, passion fruit, tangerine, avocado, etc. Zones Pomasqui Tumbaco Puembo and recorded a good fruit production.
Among the provinces of Pichincha and Guayas is concentrated almost all of Ecuador's industrial production. In Pichincha, concentration occurs in Canton Quito. Among the industries that have been developed are the following: food and beverages, textiles, leather industries, clothing, timber, chemical and pharmaceutical products, basic metal industries, machinery and equipment, graphic arts.
- The subsoil
Urban Parish: Penipe
Rural parishes: Bayushig, Bilbao, La Candelaria, El Altar, Matus, Puela.
Urban Parishes: The Matrix and El Rosario.
Rural parishes: Chazo, Guanando, Ilapo, La Providencia, San Andres, San Gerardo, San Isidro, San Jose Chazo, Santa Fe de Galan, Valparaiso.
Urban parishes Lizarzaburu, Maldonado, Velasco, Fast and Yaruquíes Cacha Calpi, Cubijíes, rural parishes: Flowers Licán, Licto Pungalá, Punim, Quimiag, San Juan, San Luis
Urban Parish: Villa Union or Cajabamba
Rural parishes: Cañi, Cumbe, Juan de Velasco and Santiago de Quito or Cabo San Antonio
PALMIRA, BARLEY PALMYRA
Urban Parish: Alausí Central
Rural parishes: Tixán, Sibambe, Hijrah, Pistishí, Guasuntos, Achupallas, Sevilla, Pumallacta Crowd.
The variety of climates
Province is favor with diversified agriculture. The main products can be listed as follows: cereals, tubers, vegetables, fruits, and medicinal plants. Potato production is important and in the l985´s it exceeded 90 thousand metric tons. Other important products are barley, corn, beans, bean, onion, lettuce, beets, and yellow carrots. An important segment is the apple production area Penipe-Bayusig. The area dedicated to agricultural cultivation is estimated about 56,000 acres of pastures and exceeds l66 hectares. Livestock population of cattle, swine and sheep stands. The province has importance horses, mules and donkeys population.
MINES AND OTHER NATURAL RESOURCES
The survey has shown the existence of mines of gold, silver, copper, iron, plaster and even hydrocarbons. In Tixán there are sulfur mines where a few years ago with an American company granting Chemical Plants. In Zula (Canton Alausí) there are marble mines. In the most important thermal springs are near Guano Elenes that cure rheumatic and skin diseases, the Santa Cruz, Cubijíes, Guayllabamba and Palitagua. Water resources are abundant and the advantage in electrification and irrigation. Importantly Chambo irrigation canal, which irrigates an area of 7,830 hectares. In Ulpan, Chibunga, Nitiluisa Sali, Timbul Huacona and rivers have been planted near l5.000 fry.
Riobamba has an industrial park south of the city whose main shareholder is the municipality. The most important industrial sector is the manufacture of non-metallic mineral products. This branch has the highest number of employed (in manufacturing activity). There are important factories of cement in Chimborazo and the Ecuadorian Pottery Companies. There are also factories for food products, paper, metal and graphic industry. Given the agricultural potential of the province has been considered necessary to develop agro-industrial projects, especially fruit and canning.
CARPETS OF GUANO
Guano has become famous for the manufacturing industry of rugs that have won acceptance from the overseas market. Some Guanos manufacturers sell abroad proportionally to the local market through the introduction of new techniques that have improved the quality of the carpet. It is an industry of traditional character as the rugs are hand woven patiently large vertical looms.
Urban Parish: Atocha - Ficoa, Celiano Monk, Huachi Chico, Huachi Loreto. La Merced, La Peninsula, Matrix, Pishilata and San Francisco.
Rural parishes: Ambatillo, Atahualpa (Chisilta), Augusto N. Martinez (Mundugleo), Constantine (Cullitahua) Huachi Grande Izamba Juan Benigno Vela, Montalvo, Raisin, Picalgua, Pilaguín, Quisapincha, Pinillo San Bartolome, San Fernando (Pasa), Santa Rosa, cattails, and Unamuncho Cunchibamba.
BAÑOS DE AGUA SANTA
Urban Parish: Bathrooms
Rural parishes: Ligu, Black River, Green River and Ulba
Urban Parish: Cevallos
Urban Parish: Mocha
Rural parishes: Pingulli
Urban Parish: Patate
Rural parishes: Triumph, Andes, Sucre.
Urban Parish: Quero
Rural parishes: Rumipamba, Yanayac - Mochapamba
SAN PEDRO DE PELILEO
Urban Parish: Pelileo Pelileo Large
Rural Parishes: Benítez, Bolivar, Cotaló, chiquichá, E Rosario (Runichaca), García Moreno, Guambaló Salasaca.
Urban Parish: New Town, Pillaro.
The economically active population (EAP) of 12 years and over accounted for 44% (195 198 inhabitants), its main economic activities, agriculture with a share of 33.80%, trade absorbs 18.30%, manufacturing with 17.70%, service meets the 13.50% and 16.80% other.
Tungurahua has large areas of arable land completely, irrigated land have what's best production in the valley of Patate warm weather products are produced as its people, as well as Baños.
Its topography is varied and it highlights important as Igualata elevations (4,430 m), Cerro Hermoso (4,571 m), Carihuairazo (5,020 m), the Sagoatoa (4,153 m) and the volcano that gives its name to province: Tungurahua (5,016 m). The land is very rich and suitable for agriculture and livestock.
The hydrographic axis of the province is the Patate River, supplemented by others such as Ambato, the Green, the Mole Man, and several more to irrigate their fields, most of them dedicated to the cultivation of apples, pears, reinaclaudias, peaches, guaytambos, grapes, blackberries, sugar and a variety of grains and legumes
As regards industry, the following stand out: Tanneries, metal foundries, Textiles and Clothing, Food, Leather, Rubber, Plastics, Spirits and Soft Drinks, Wood, Metal mechanics, poultry, etc.
Tungurahua, one of the most productive compared to other neighboring provinces in the Midwest. The commitment and effort that people have to work so you can see if you visit fairs in Ambato Mondays, Sundays and Píllaro Quero, on Saturday Pelileo; where not only you can find basic necessities, but also clothes, crafts, toys, etc.
Without doubt, the leather industry is important to the provincial development if you wish to purchase a piece of leather, you can visit Quisapincha, Picaihua or Quero; but you can also visit Pelileo and get clothes like pants, sweaters, blouses, shirts, shorts, caps, etc., worked jean.
Tungurahua, being quite business features a large number of banks and credit unions, local and national.
In Tungurahua, there are 2 forms of transport (road and air). The Land Transport brings together transport types People in all types transport and load in all types because of its proximity to Quito there is a small airport that serves only for emergencies or visits High Public characters transcendence in our country, as definite Coast and the Amazon is that air transport does not have much relevance.
In the province of Tungurahua the following types and Media:
Newspapers, Broadcast Radio Stations, and Television Stations.
Urban parishes: Eloy Alfaro (San Felipe), Ignacio Flores (Flowers Park), Juan Montalvo (San Sebastián), The Matrix, San Buenaventura.
Rural parishes: Toacaso, San Juan de Pastocalle, Mulaló, Tanicuchi, Guaytacama, Alaques, poalo, November 11, Latacunga, Blisario Quevedo, Joseguango Low.
Urban parishes: El Carmen, El Triunfo and Mana.
Rural parishes: Guansaguanda, Pucayacu.
Rural Parishes: The Heart Moraspungo Ramon Bell and Pinllopata.
Urban Parish: Pujilí
Rural parishes: Tingo Pilalo, Zumbahua, Guangaje, Victoria, Angamarca
Urban Parish: San Miguel de Salcedo
Rural parishes: Antonio José Holguín Cusubamba, Mulalillo, Mulliquindi, Panzaleo.
Urban Parish: Saquisilí
Rural parishes Cochapamba Canchagua, Chantillín
Urban Parish: Sigchos
Rural parishes: Chugchilan, Isinlivi, Las Pampas Palo Quemado
Cotopaxi is a province rich in natural resources. Its variety of weather offers product diversity, muck soils are calcareous, argillaceous, and flora is rich. Forests are a wealth and national park created in l975 preserves ecological reserves in the area where they grow thousands of pine trees. Molle tree is the symbol of the province and there are varieties of cypress, walnut, alder, myrtle and subtropical rubber, laurel, Tagua, oak, lignum vitae is exploited.
The province is rich in minerals, most of which have not been exploited. Until l983 he was not registered any mining property, but later the Ecuadorian Institute of Mining registered deposits of precious metals, other metals and non-metals and numerous quarries. There are deposits of salt, limestone, clay, carbonate, and pumice. The latter is abundant and the advantage of control.
FISHING AND MINERAL WATER SOURCES
The rivers and lakes in the tropics and subtropics as Pangua, Moraspungo, Pucayacu, La Manna and Salcedo are a valuable resource for commercial and sport fishing. The province is rich in mineral springs. It may be mentioned: In the Hacienda La Cienega, medicinal waters (source "Ering") and in the same parish (Tanicuchi) waters of El Carmen. On the banks of the river in Latacunga there Pumacunchi sources Imperial and San Felipe.
AGRICULTURE AND LIVESTOCK
Cotopaxi is a typical highland province where they have important smallholdings and large farms. Dairy farming is developed especially in the estates to the north of the province: St. Augustine, Avelina, San Sebastian, Pilacoto, San Mateo, and San Pedro. Livestock Cotopaxi is one of the largest in the country, which is especially due to the good pasture and increased production efficiency. The most important agricultural crop is potato especially on the estates of the southeastern area Cusubamba Salcedo and moor. The next most important production of cassava, onions, avocados, barley, oranges, corn, bean, beans and sugarcane for other uses.
The main industries settled in the province are: Food and Drink, snuff, metal products, machinery and equipment, furniture industries and wood. Most of them are located north along the Pan American Highway. In milk processing plants are important and Avelina Indulac. In Ecuatubex metal products, Necchi, NGK, Orbea.
In Cotopaxi works a large artisan class. The most important branches are: shoemaking, sewing, carpentry, sheet metal, leather, pottery, weaving. The workmanship is usually done as a family activity and complement members in agricultural work in a small plot. In areas surrounding Guaytacama there are artisans who are dedicated to the development of "cups" and reed mats. The handicrafts are exhibited at various fairs in the county.
Urban parishes: Gabriel Ignacio de Veintemilla, Angel Polybius, Chavez and Guanujo
Rural parishes: Salinas, Simiátug, Facundo Vela, Julio Moreno, Santa Fe, San Lorenzo and San Simon.
Urban Parish: Chillanes
Rural parish: San José de Tambo
Urban Parish: Chimbo Central
Rural parishes: Assumption, Madgalena, San Sebastián, Telimbela.
Urban Parish: San Miguel Central
Rural parishes: Balsapambo, Biolbán, Regulus de Mora, San Pablo de Atenas, San Vicente, Santiago.
Because of its location in cold and warm low highlands, this province has a very diverse agricultural production of both products of the sierra (potatoes, wheat, lentils, mellocos, corn, etc.) as those typical of the subtropics: cane sugar, coffee, cocoa, oranges, papayas, lemons, tangerines, avocados, etc. Within its flora found woods such as quebracho, laurel, baba, motilón, Zapan platuquero. There are also areas of pine, cypress and eucalyptus. From an agricultural point of view the province has been divided into four areas:
a) Andean Páramo in the central area between 3 and 4000 meters representing 25% of total area.
b) inter-Andean grasslands located in the valley of Chimbo which occupies 13% of the area;
c) western foothills of the Cordillera of Chimbo. It is the largest area (46% of the area) with altitudes between 1,000 and 2,500 meters.
d) Low Western Zone occupying 16% of the territory with altitudes between 200 and 1,000 meters.
Each of these areas has its peculiarities in agricultural, forestry and livestock fields.
The livestock sector has developed in recent years. The abundant milk production gains momentum has enabled the production of cheese and dairy especially in the town of Salinas, north of the capital of the province. The cheeses are manufactured using modern techniques and have begun to export. Also important is the population of pigs and sheep, the latter situated mostly in Guaranda.
In the province dominated by small farms and agricultural productivity is low by the impoverishment of the soil, the use of substandard production systems. Smallholding predominates because 67% of the production units have less than 5 hectares while 1% has over 100 hectares. The unequal distribution of land aggravates the economic situation since small plot are located on less fertile soils and steep. 250,000 hectares are occupied with agricultural crops and pastures, which is excessive it is estimated that only 160,000 hectares would be usable. In recent years it has increased the area of crops of coffee, soft corn and cocoa. For marketing, there are no storage facilities are inadequate local roads and there is an abundant network of intermediaries. The producers are not organized.
Clay and kaolin mines exist in Ayurco, Santiago, Chimborazo, Santa Fe, San Lorenzo, San Miguel. In Chillanes white or yellow ground for handicrafts is used. In Talagua and Simiatug are deposits of zinc, copper, silver and molybdenum; San Antonio, antimony and mercury; in Salado, north of Guaranda metamorphic rocks and siliceous earth is; Salinas salt mines and along the river Chimbo mineral waters. South of Balzapamba, montmorillonite (for use in ceramics) and Las Naves and Saddled, alluvial gold deposits.
Its further development is in manufacturing carved wooden furniture, guitars, guns, locksmith, blacksmith, fireworks, jewelry, tin, headdresses, craftsmanship applied to agricultural production, candies and sweets, fabrics, manufacturing mills. The armory is a manufacturing craft workshop and has a long tradition whose origin is not known with precision.
Trees and forests have been exploited uncontrollably and inappropriately. Deforestation has contributed to accelerated erosion. The work of reforestation has been insufficient. The forest area represents 21% of a surface
ROUTES OF COMMUNICATION
The province is connected to the rest of the country by land. Guaranda is 235 km. Quito and a180 kms. Guayaquil. Lacks a good road structure it has barely 500 kms. Neighborhood roads. The cities of Guaranda, San Miguel and Chimbo feature phones digital technology. The special topography of a province and rains isolated during winter periods many populations. A high percentage of agricultural production units are more than 10 kms. Road.